For example, if ANOVA (analysis of variance) is one mode of data analysis, the independent variable must be measured on a nominal scale with two or more levels (yes, no, not sure), and the dependent variable must be measured on a interval/ratio scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).
As a result of Steps 1-3, a draft questionnaire is ready for establishing validity.
Major variables (independent, dependent, and moderator variables) are identified and defined in this step.
In Step 3, the focus is on writing statements/questions, selection of appropriate scales of measurement, questionnaire layout, format, question ordering, font size, front and back cover, and proposed data analysis.
Determining who is the audience, their background, especially their educational/readability levels, access, and the process used to select the respondents (sample vs. A thorough understanding of the problem through literature search and readings is a must.
Good preparation and understanding of Step1 provides the foundation for initiating Step 2.
Validity is the amount of systematic or built-in error in measurement (Norland, 1990).
To assess reliability of knowledge questions, test-retest or split-half is appropriate. The Fog Index, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kinkaid Readability Formula, and Gunning-Fog Index are formulas used to determine readability.Approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) must also be obtained.Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire is a must to reduce measurement error.Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.In a review of 748 research studies conducted in agricultural and Extension education, Radhakrishna, Leite, and Baggett (2003) found that 64% used questionnaires.